By Dietmar Stubenbaum and Marc Pion - English translation Annemarie Leippert and Neal DeGregorio.

This article was published in the May 2005 edition of cultura martialis - Das Journal der Kampfkünste aus aller Welt”.

Although one can speak in principle of only one Chen style Taijiquan, today one differentiates between different frames. The most unknown probably is xiaojia, the small frame of Chen style Taijiquan. Chen Peishan, who is a 20th generation descendent of the Chen clan, extensively researched the evolution of Chen style Taijiquan.

cultura martialis: Mr. Chen, at which age did you began learning your family’s Taijiquan 太極拳?

Shop_Cultura_martialis_5Chen Peishan: This question is often asked of me, but it is difficult to answer exactly. I still remember things as a very young child, I remember during my childhood my father Chen Lixian 陳立先 taught in our home. Many people visited us to learn from him. During this time I practiced with his students and followed their movements. I cannot remember when I completed the first form (yilu 一路). It was very normal for me to train with the students each time they visited. In those times there were no official gymnasiums open for common citizens, and my father just taught at home. Since different students were coming every day to learn, I had many opportunities to follow the same lectures and to get to know many different aspects of Taijiquan. In retrospect, it was a unique opportunity to experience very intensive Taijiquan starting at a very young age.

cultura martialis: How many brothers and sisters do you have? Did you all learn Taijiquan from your father?

Chen Peishan: I have a brother and two sisters, my older sister Peiqiu 沛秋, my older brother Peilin 沛林 and my younger sister Peiju 沛菊. Yes, we all learned from my father in difficult times during and after the Cultural Revolution [1]. That changed however, as my parents became older and life circumstances demanded more and more of us. My elder sister had the main domestic duties and helped us younger siblings with everyday things. For me, Peiqiu was nearly like my mother, she did a lot for me. During this time she couldn’t practice much. Nevertheless she knows our family’s Taijiquan precisely. She really cared about and was devoted to her brothers and sister.

cultura martialis: Who was your grandfather? Did you know him?

Chen Peishan: My grandfather was Chen Hongen 陳鸿恩. Unfortunately he had already died, when I was born.

cultura martialis: Did your father learn like you from his father?

Chen Peishan: My father learned mainly from Chen Honglie, the father of Chen Liqing, my aunt. In my family the brothers Chen Hongen and Chen Honglie helped each other. It is as if they both had one son and that was my father. That is attributed to the fact that Chen Honglie did not have a son of his own. Chen Honglie was a great Taijiquan master. This was the main reason why my granduncle had taken over the Taijiquan-formation of my father. My aunt, Chen Liqing learned together with my father. She is the first woman listed in the genealogical tree of Chen Taijiquan masters.

cultura martialis: Did you get to know your granduncle Chen Honglie?

Chen Peishan: No, unfortunately not.

cultura martialis: In Chen family Taijiquan there are two large mainstreams: dajia 大架 (large frame) and xiaojia 小架 (small frame). In large frame one also differentiates between laojia 老架(old frame) and xinjia 新架 (new frame). Can you explain how this differentiation came about, and did such distinctions already exist in your childhood?

Taijiquan CPS Interview 2015 ISCT Festival SB 32Chen Peishan: As I recall, the first time I heard people talking about xinjia in Chenjiagou 陳家溝 was around 1976. At that time Chen Zhaokui 陳照奎 [2], the son of Chen Fake 陳發科, came back from Beijing to Chenjiagou village to teach Taijiquan. At that time students that were willing gathered in the mornings on the village square to learn from Chen Zhaokui. Often, he stood on a platform, which was higher than the ground level, so that people could see him better during his Taijiquan demonstrations. In the evening he taught a small group of select students. They were favored to learn the form (taolu 套路) with many details and fajin 發勁 [3] movements.

During the Cultural Revolution there were few people playing Taijiquan. Many masters lived in hiding. At this time there were delays, detentions and many bad things happened. Chen Zhaokui’s demonstrations differed from the large frame forms that were practiced in the village. Probably, that led some villagers to assume that it must be something new or a new form (xinjia).

During this time, I was in Chenjiagou visiting relatives. Chen Zhaokui was a guest living in the house of my uncle Chen Lizhou 陳立周, in which Chen Yu 陳瑜, the son of Chen Zhaokui, and I spent a lot of time together. As I said before, to the best of my knowledge, no one had spoken before this time about new or old frames in the village. However, the names of large and small frame were entirely familiar.

cultura martialis: Was Chen Zhaokui’s form or its execution unknown to the people in Chenjiagou?

Chen Peishan: Back then, one could not hear an exact explanation from anyone about it. Even today, this question is not entirely clear why Chen Zhaokui’s form is called xinjia. In the meantime, it just has become common to use this denomination. It is also a controversial discussion whether the so-called xinjia form was compiled by Chen Fake, or if it has an even older origin. For outsiders, the entire issue must seem very confusing.

My father told me that the so-called xinjia is really a gongfujia 功夫架 [4] of dajia, a higher level in dajia. In xiaojia we also have our gongfujia. That means that one should not learn this taolu (= level of practice) too early. Xinjia would therefore only represent a further step in the training course of the large frame to educate the gongfu and other more advanced elements such as learning how to fajin. It is important for Taijiquan students, not to begin too early to expel jin (fa). A higher level of skill in Taijiquan is required for it. If fajin training is not taught by a good master and the training path prepared correctly, there is a risk that the organs can be injured during an incorrect issuance of force. Therefore, the priority should always be the conscientious learning of the important basics.

cultura martialis: The denomination xinjia not only appears in connection to the large frame. It is also said that Chen Youben, 14th generation of Chen clan, also is responsible for a new frame or method (xinjia). Is this correct?

Chen Peishan: : I don´t think that Chen Youben 陳有本 was responsible for a new form in this context. This Chen Youben and xinjia thesis was published a few years ago in a book published by Chen Zhenglei 陳正雷, where it was promoted the first time by a member of the Chen clan. This is not mentioned in Chenjiagou history.

But, on the other hand a quite well known occurrence in Chenjiagou is that Youben taught Chen Gengyun 陳耕耘, the son of Chen Changxing 陳長興 with certain changes [5]. The fact that Chen Gengyun learned from Chen Youben is kept in the Chen Shi Jiacheng 陳氏家乘 (the Genealogy of the Chen family) record. Chen Youben was a descendent of the 14th generation and Chen Gengyun from the 15th generation. I think that with all this style and confusion of forms that xinjia, dajia etc. was not “created” from a single person. Rather, it is merely a natural evolution in Taijiquan by all its underlying influences. It is a living thing, something that is subject to a perpetual evolution. In the current generation of Taijiquan, nobody can show the form just as Chen Changxing or Youben did it in their time.

As I said before, it is a natural process that not only has taken place in the past, but also still takes place in the different style’s characteristics.

This could even be seen in different places (areas) of the village. It means that particular blood relatives and groups lived in different places (or areas) of the village, and could inherit certain forms of Taijiquan. The families that practice dajia in Chenjiagou, come from a different bloodline than my family (xiaojia). It is said that the separation of dajia lineage [note translator: meaning the bloodline] had taken place five generations before Chen Wangting 陳王庭 [6].

Taijiquan CPS Interview 2015 ISCT Festival SB 24cultura martialis: Does your family descend from Chen Wangting by a direct bloodline?

Chen Peishan: Not by hundred percent. The ancestor of my family is Chen Wangqian 陳王前, who was Chen Wangting’s brother.

cultura martialis: Are there blood relatives of Chen Wangting in Chenjiagou? Which method do his decedents practice today

Chen Peishan: Yes, they still exist. In some bloodlines interruptions have taken place in one or another generation on the part of the learners or the transmission. The training was then resumed by someone from a subsequent generation. It depended of course from which teacher in Chenjiagou one learned. There wasn’t always a teacher from one’s own bloodline available from whom one could learn Taijiquan. Therefore, from one generation to another one cannot say exactly what their biological ancestors practiced originally. In those circumstances often the most popular forms in the village at that time were trained. From my blood ancestors anyway, I know that there has been no interruption in the practical tradition of previous generations, and that holds true today.

cultura martialis: As a member of the Chen family and representative of the xiaojia-method you have plenty of experience with Chen Taijiquan. Can you explain the differences between the teaching methods of dajia and xiaojia?

Chen Peishan: There are clearly many differences. In a book concerning Taijiquan it was said: "When the small circles in xiaojia are executed bigger, it becomes dajia." And in reverse it becomes xiaojia, if one makes the circles in dajia smaller. This is not true in my opinion. Dajia and xiaojia have a different theory and methodology in form and application. In both styles, there are big and small movements. Therefore, the radius of the circle does not necessarily represents the difference between the teaching method.

A typical example of this is the position lou xi niubu 摟膝拗步 [7]. This position is actively rotated in dajia after bending; one straightens up and opens wide. In xiaojia this movement is naturally aligned and the arms are closed to the body center. Overall, the external form in xiaojia appears considerably quieter and more internal.

Thus, first there are clear differences between form and characteristices of practice, dajia is more open with larger rotational movements whereas xiaojia is contained and acts calmly. Next, there are differences in the theory. There are really a lot of differences. An example is the difference between kaidang 開襠 (to open the crotch) and yuandang 圓襠 (to round the crotch). Dajia opens the dang in the front (qiandang 前襠) very wide, but xiaojia closes it. Some xiaojia players make the mistake of tilting the knee too far inward. In xiaojia, the dang should not only be closed at the front, but always be rounded. Another difference is that xiaojia opens shoudang 後襠 (the seat of the crotch), so that the buttocks sinks and the pelvis and lumbar spine are not forced forward [8].

If you open houdang, one can finish qiandang in a circle in a natural way. In dajia, keeping the rounded dang stable while in motion does not seem important. But, in xiaojia it is an essential requirement. It is of course impossible to mention all the differences. Also, a key point is that the form’s applications are quite different.

Taijiquan CPS Interview 2015 ISCT Festival SB 29

cultura martialis: How, into your opinion, did these substantial differences in the theory of execution develop? Chenjiagou is not so large that an exchange of ideas might not have been difficult.

Chen Peishan: Before the time of Chen Changxing and Chen Youben nothing was known about different theories or even of the existence of different teaching methods as dajia or xiaojia. The split took place probably gradually in subsequent generations after these two masters. We do not know much about that time. Written records prove nothing. Chen Xin 陳鑫 from the 16th generation, descendant of the xiaojia lineage, wrote down detailed theories of his family method [9]. Chen Zhaopei 陳照丕 from the 18th generation, representative of dajia, among other things, also learned from Chen Xin, which he mentioned in his publications.

cultura martialis: What did Chen Zhaopei learn from Chen Xin?

Chen Peishan: Chen Zhaopei did not make any statements about it. His book seems like a condensed version of Chen Xin’s chen shi Taijiquan tushuo 陳式太極拳圖說 [10].

cultura martialis: There are few early book publications of the Chen-family. Beside Chen Xin’s chen shi Taijiquan tushuo and Chen Zhaopei’s works we also know about the publications of Chen Ziming 陳子明 [11]. Who was he?

Chen Peishan: Chen Ziming also belongs to the xiaojia lineage. His publication is not very extensive, and contains little detailed explanations compared to Chen Xin´s chen shi Taijiquan tushuo.

cultura martialis: In the thirties, a martial art historian by the name of Tang Hao唐豪 carried out field research about the origination of the art of Taijiquan. For this reason, he visited Chenjiagou. Later, he published his research findings in an article in Chen Ziming’s book. There, he talked of an old frame (laojia) and new frame (xinjia). How did he come to such definitions [12]?

Chen Peishan: It is difficult to say exactly, from whom he received his information for his research. We know that he visited Chenjiagou. There are to my knowledge nowadays no written credible facts that prove the above propositions. Perhaps there existed certain misunderstandings. In Tang Haos publication, in collaboration with Gu Liuxin 顧留馨, there was also mentioned a middle style (zhongjia 中架) [13].

cultura martialis: What is meant by a middle style?

Chen Peishan: In Chenjiagou, there is really no such thing as a middle frame. Perhaps it was observed by Tang Hao in Chenjiagou that Taijiquan was practiced in various versions of the height and the definition was created due to that. The whole should therefore be examined first by further research. Until now, I've heard of no master of Chenjiagou saying something about zhongjia. Perhaps, sometimes it was said: “Oh, the frame which that person practices is neither large nor small, perhaps it is medium?” But, this was not meant in relation to a method of learning, but rather in connection with the execution.

cultura martialis: : In the Chen family history is said that Chen Qingping 陳青萍 had gone from Chenjiagou to the village Zhaobao 趙堡 and taught Taijiquan. He laid the foundations of this discipline. Zhaobao Taijiquan book authors often say something different, right?

Chen Peishan: I think that Chen Qingping taught in Zhaobao. That is not a long time ago, and many can remember it.

Taijiquan CPS Interview 2015 ISCT Festival SB 27cultura martialis: Is it not also possible, that Zhaobao Taijiquan has a different origin?

Chen Peishan: If one looks at Zhaobao Taijiquan more precisely, one can determine that the forms resemble very much those of xiaojia, but differ from those of dajia. Chen Qingping was from the xiaojia lineage.

cultura martialis: Wu Tunan吳圖南, adept of Yang style Taijiquan (yang shi Taijiquan 陽式太極拳) evidently visited Chenjiagou village as a young man. According to him, he had the opportunity to speak with Chen Xin. In his later publication, he reported that Chen Xin told him that boxing art of the Chen family was not Taijiquan but paoquan (cannon fist). It has further been alleged that a person named Jiangfa 蔣發 taught Taijiquan in Chenjiagou [14]. What do you think?

Chen Peishan: Concerning this, there are no verifiable facts. Wu Tunan also said that Chen Xin expressed that he was not a Taijiquan authority, and that his gongfu was not at a high level. However, it is not uncommon in martial arts circles to conceal the knowledge of martial arts to a stranger, although one perhaps in reality was a master. It is well known in Chenjiagou that Chen Xin was a master of Taijiquan, and not only in terms of the theory, as is sometimes claimed. Chen Xin taught Taijiquan and had students.

cultura martialis: Today you do not live any more in China but in Japan. When did you move to Japan? What was your motivation to relocate in Japan?

Chen Peishan: In August 1988 I moved to Japan, to study engineering at the University and teach the Taijiquan of my family.

cultura martialis: Why did you want to teach Taijiquan in Japan?

Taijiquan CPS Interview 2015 ISCT Festival SB 33Chen Peishan: There existed a group in Japan that made a request, that I should teach Taijiquan in Japan. So, I made an application for a student visa to study in Tokyo and at the same time to teach Taijiquan. There were some lasting memories of my childhood, which moved me for a long time to carry my family’s Taijiquan outside.

At that time, there were various martial arts demonstrations in Henan 溫縣. During one of these performances, other Changquan 長拳 (long fist) forms were demonstrated. It was these types of Changquan forms that were trained at sportscolleges and their practitioners supported by the Government.

I felt that my family’s Taijiquan was not treated equal. Obviously, the Chen style Taijiquan was generally unknown and that is what saddened me, and led me to the decision.

Later, the Chen style was visible at public demonstrations, but only representatives of the large frame were present. This changed somewhat when Chen Liqing, Chen Boxian and I started to publicly show more. Compared to the other Taijiquan styles, the possibility of seeing the small frame in such demonstrations was negligible.

Since Taijiquan had spread more and more abroad, I realized that my family’s small frame should also have a voice in other cultures. So, I accepted the offer gladly to teach Taijiquan in Japan.

cultura martialis: In your tradition, wasn’t the teaching method always kept a family secret?

Chen Peishan: Yes, my ancestors had that opinion, which was at that time probably necessary, that it would be better to keep the teaching method inside the family. It was considered a family treasure that was not to be revealed.

cultura martialis: What did your father think about this?

Chen Peishan: My father was of the opinion, that it was no longer necessary to hide our teaching method. The times had changed. I think Chen Liqing and my father were the first who taught xiaojia publicly. I believe it was then my duty, to open the teaching method even more, to show clearly what constitutes my ancestors’ Taijiquan.

cultura martialis: What was the reason that you and your sister, Chen Peiju, created the International Society of Chen Taijiquan (guoji chen shi Taijiquan lian meng 國際陳式太極拳聯盟)?

Taijiquan CPS Interview 2015 ISCT Festival SB 25Chen Peishan: Yes. It became necessary to organize the whole curriculum. I intended to provide beginners a simpler structure that would make the Taijiquan principles understandable.

For this, I arranged Sizheng Taijiquan 四正太極拳 (four pillars Taijiquan), without using the name of my family for this taolu (form). This form is suitable for anyone interested and simplifies the entry into Taijiquan.

cultura martialis: Why did you think that another form was needed? There are a lot of short forms for beginners in the different Taijiquan styles. Why were you, nevertheless, of the opinion of the necessity for another form?

Chen Peishan: When I had started teaching xiaojia in Tokyo, many of my students had the opinion, that it was very difficult to learn the traditional form. First I taught thirty students. Soon afterwards there remained only seven. Everybody told me that it was too difficult.

Then people came to me from other martial arts, which wanted to understand only the martial aspect of Taijiquan. The audience, which wanted to learn Taijiquan for health reasons stayed away, because they were influenced by the already existing widespread Taijiquan forms in Japan and therefore had a different perception of the connection between Taijiquan and health. So, it was not a matter of creating just another form, but to facilitate access to the traditional principles of Taijiquan for the modern people. Understanding and practicing those principles are ultimately responsible for the positive effect on our health.

In this context, it was not enough to simplify a long form and leave out difficult movements. It was very important to find solutions to the difficulties encountered, which a modern student is exposed to when learning Taijiquan.

Of course, there was also the question of which health problems modern people are facing today. Many people have to spend too much time during their work at the computer, resulting in tension, a stiff neck, and eye problems and often to difficulties with digestion. Any employee who is sitting all day at his desk knows these problems.

My idea was to summarize in a short form the essential principles of the long form in simple movements, and at the same time respond specifically to certain health problems.

After a prolonged experimental stage, in that many of my students participated, and after having survived the test phase, Sizheng Taijiquan was officially taught.

It takes usually between one and two years to learn the sequence of movements of the traditional form. Then one begins to learn the internal form, the internal movement (neijin). The motion sequence of Sizheng Taijiquan can be learned in a week, and so the internal training can begin sooner.

cultura martialis: What does neijin (the inner movement) signify in traditional Taijiquan?

Taijiquan CPS Interview 2015 ISCT Festival SB 26Chen Peishan: It is very difficult to explain neijin just with a few words. There are many explanations necessary not only verbally, especially practical. Some call neijin as internal energy, but I do not think it can be described as energy. It is much more a movement.

Let me explain it this way: To bring to running a motor vehicle, I usually do not push-start it, but it has an engine and various parts such as gears, clutch and drive shaft. It is therefore much involved to transfer the force from the motor to the four wheels.

The center of the movement in Taijiquan is the dantian 丹田 the energy center below the navel. The body movement is developed by jie 節. Jie means segment. Imagine that there are many segments in the body. The movement of an individual segment transfers the movement to the next segment and then further to the next one. The movement of the segments is transmitted helically and with great elasticity, transforming from dantian trough many individual segments to the outermost extremities. This movement or transmission can be called a jin. All this differs of course jin from a movement which is executed with brute strength and tension. Jin consists not only of a physically delivered segment movement, but is also in communication with the qi 氣 and yi 意(the imagination) and other subtle-elements. A movement that is generated by all these physical and subtle-element resources is called jin.

cultura martialis: : Can you amplify the explanation a little?

Chen Peishan: The internal movement can be divided into two kinds. On one side is the actual physical movement such as the movement of the shoulder and hip joints.

On the other hand there is the subtle-element movement (qi), controlled by the yi. The organ function [15] can be influenced by the flow of qi in the meridians (jingluo 經絡) [16].

The interplay of yi, qi, jingluo, the organs and their connection therefore represent the other kind of inner movement.

cultura martialis: But we say then that a Taijiquan that exists only in a choreographic version or is taught that way - without neijin - can contribute anything positive to health?

Chen Peishan: We cannot say that it is good or bad for health; but certainly we can say that it just does not have as high quality. Real Taijiquan should have internal movement (neijin). If it does not, it's not really Taijiquan, but something else such as any form of sports or gymnastics.

cultura martialis: In your familys teaching method, there are different stages of development in direct connection with learning the form. With what kind of claim to the form the Taijiquan-instruction starts?

Chen Peishan: The first step should be always learning the basic form. We call this level jichujia 基础架. Here one learns the individual movements/pictures of the form, the external frame. The basics are created here.

The tool with which can be further worked is build up. It is like the skeleton of a building.

cultura martialis: What would be the next step?

Taijiquan CPS Interview 2015 ISCT Festival SB 31Chen Peishan: Constructing on that skeleton the internal movement (neijin) is learned. You will learn to understand the principles of jin and how to train and use it. We call this dongjin 懂勁 or dongquan 懂拳. We also learn to understand the jin of another body (for example of the practice partner) (tingjin 听勁). It is an evolving process.

In the third stage (sanbianquan 三遍拳) one learns to use ones yi so that the qi is able to move the body. Once you have mastered this, you are already able to develop different forms of jin as e.g. eject the jin (fajin).

At this stage, you can eject the jin in the base form in many places. Here, the xiaojia taolu becomes gongfujia as before mentioned gongfujia in the large frame. Here also the external movements are much more complex and there are, for example, also jumps.

cultura martialis: Are there further steps after gongfujia?

Chen Peishan: Yes, the fourth level contains more and more inner and smaller circles; the segments multiply to infinity. The form appears to the observer more straight forward, but in reality, the circles are now just very small and far-reaching deep. In the old Taijiquan texts one talks often about advancing to the bone marrow.

Then we come to the fifth level. At this stage, the form is free, which means that there is no longer a form. A form without form.

cultura martialis: How is it possible to continue to practice Taijiquan?

Chen Peishan: You can sit here and still train Taiji. Your arms, your legs, the mental work, walking, lying, your whole way of life, everything becomes Taiji. This is a very high level.

cultura martialis: What do you think about Taijiquan in the modern society? How shall it develop?

Chen Peishan: I did research in different art forms and philosophical doctrines. When I compare the arts with Taijiquan, I come to the belief that the Taijiquan should be regarded as a form of art; Not only the physical side, but also the way of thinking, feelings and sensitivity. Also the traditional idea of the connection between the teacher and his students should be preserved. The relationship between student and student - generally, how people treat each other, our humanity.

In China, there is a ritual called baishi 拜师. It is a trust alliance between the teacher and the student. It is like in a family and as one loves his family members. That's one thing that cannot be bought for money. Real Taijiquan is not affordable. There is a feeling, culture and art, a beautiful thing.

On the other hand, I note that the Taijiquan is in a big mess. There are so many Taijiquan forms and theories without any real basis. If we put it all on the table, we would have really the biggest confusion.

More work must therefore be invested in structuring and research. Taijiquan is still a relatively young art. We should learn to understand the roots of Taijiquan profoundly, and to draw it in proper forms, so that modern people in our time are able to understand it, and be able to benefit from it.

cultura martialis: Mr. Chen, we would like to thank you very much for the elaborately dialogue.

Taijiquan CPS Interview 2015 ISCT Festival SB 01 

Footnotes

[1] Refers to events between the years 1966 - 1976. During this period, hundreds of thousands of people were mistreated, humiliated and murdered.

[2] He was born in Beijing and spent most of his life there. His most famous students include among others Chen Xiaowang 陳小旺, Chen Zhenglei 陳正雷, Wang Xian 王西安 and Zhu Tiancai 朱天才.

[3] The jin, which is discharged, such as by a punch.

[4] One way to practice the form, in which higher skills are worked out.

[5] Chen Changxing worked for a security service. Chen Gengyun was prepared by Chen Youben and others for the same job.

[6] He is regarded as the founder of Taijiquan.

[7] Brushing knees also called xie xin gao bu 斜行拗步 (diagonal position), in dajia often referred to as angled position.

[8] Dang is the denomination of the inside of the thighs.

[9] Chen Xin 陳鑫 (also Pinsan 陳品三), Chen Shi Taijiquan Tushuo 陳式太極拳圖說, pictures and explanations of the Chen Style Taijiquan, Shanghai Shudian, Shanghai, 1986, is a facsimile of the Kaiming Yinshuaju 1933 edition. There are other reprints from Hong Kong and Taiwan with different dates.

[10] Chen Jifu 陳績甫 (Chen Zhaopei 陳照丕), Chen Shi Taijiquan, Ru Men Zong Jjie門總解, General introduction and explanation of the Chen Style Taijiquan, Wu Zhou Chu Ban She, Taibei 1998.The first edition appeared in the thirties. The same author also wrote Chen Shi Taijiquan Hui Zong 陳式太極拳滙宗, Nanjing, 1935.

[11] Chen Ziming 陳子明, Chen Shi Shi Chuan Taijiquan Shu 陳式世傳太極拳術, Chen style Taijiquan passed down through generations, 1932.

[12] Tang Hao published the following research: Neijiaquan 內家拳, school of internal boxing, Zhongguo Wushu Xuehui, Shanghai 1935. Taijiquan Gen Yuan 太極拳根源, On the Origin of Taijiquan, in Deng Shihai Taijiquan Kao, Hong Kong 1980.

[13] Taijiquan Yanjiu 太極拳研究, research on Taijiquan, Bailing Chubanshe, Hong Kong 1963.

[14] Taijiquan Jjingsui 太極拳精髓, Renmin Tiyu Chubanshe, Beijing 1991. TaijiquanZhi Yan Jin太極拳之研究, Shang Wu Yin ShuKuan, Hong Kong 1984.

[15] The theory of Chinese medicine distinguishes between wuzang 五臟 (the 5 organs liver, heart, spleen, lungs and kidneys) and liufu 六腑 ("6 palace organs" to which gallbladder, small intestine, stomach, bladder and the "triple heater" belong).

[16] A network of meridians where the qi is transported. A distinction is made between the 12 regular meridians and 8 unpaired meridians. There are also the socalled netmeridians and musclemeridians.

© 2005, Dietmar Stubenbaum and Marc Pion for cultura martialis.